1984 Part Two

In Part Two of the novel, we’ve analyzed the growing relationship of Winston and Julia, we’ve seen more of the power and reach of Big Brother, and we’ve seen Winston begin to commit more and more crimes against the party. As we review Part Two, remember to consider the main themes we’ve been analyzing:

  • The Power of Language
  • Privacy and Technology
  • The Control of Information
  • The Importance of History
  • Individual Freedoms
  • Relationships and Human Connections

As you analyze these themes in your groups, you will pick a minimum of three scenes in Part Two that you believe are clear examples of where you theme is playing out in Orwell’s work. You will prepare with your group members to debate others that your interpretation of these scenes is the accurate and correct on (Note: there is no one ‘correct’ interpretation for many of these scenes – you will be assessed on your rhetorical skills in this debate).

Please click here to access the checklist for your group debates.

You also worked together to brainstorm a list of the most important scenes, events, and characters in Part Two. Below you will find a series of questions generated around those topics you selected – these questions will be incorporated into your test over Part Two, so please be sure to review them!

 

  1. Early in Part Two Julia gives Winston a note reading “I love you”. How does this act illustrate her nature and personality? What other actions does she take in Part Two that clearly illustrate her character?
  2. What is the symbolism behind Winston and Julia’s first meeting place in the glen – “the golden country”?
  3. At the end of chapter two, Julia and Winston listen to the song of a thrush that lands in the glen. Later, in chapter ten, Winston remembers the song and asks Julia:

       “Do you remember,” he said, “the thrust that sang to us, that first day at the edge of the wood?”

         “He wasn’t singing to us,” said Julia. “He was singing to please himself. Not even that. He was just                singing.”

What do Winston and Julia’s vastly different interpretations of this same event reveal to us about             their  beliefs and their relationship?

  1. Music is very important to Part Two – in chapter 4 Winston and Julia hear a washerwoman singing outside the antique shop while she hangs up laundry. Later, in chapter 10, they hear her again. What is the significance and irony of the song the washerwoman is singing?
  2. “The bird sang, the proles sang, the Party did not sing … You were dead; theirs [the proles] was the future. But you could share in that future if you kept alive the mind as they kept alive the body and passed on the secret doctrine that two plus two makes four” (Orwell ).

In this quote we see Winston’s belief that, if he can still keep control of his own thoughts and                    beliefs he can achieve some form of ‘freedom’, like that the proles have. What would be Julia’s                  belief in this scenario?

  1. What causes Winston to suddenly remember what happened to his mother and sister? Why is this long-forgotten memory so important to Winston?
  2. How do we know that the Inner Party is allowed more freedom than the Outer Party members? Cite evidence from chapter 8 to support your answer.
  3. During the Hate Week demonstrations, the speaker suddenly switches from describing the enemy as Eurasia to Eastasia – explain the effect does this has on the party members at the demonstration, and on Winston.
  4. How does Big Brother suddenly shifting the enemy of the state demonstrate their power? (hint – your answer should discuss one of the themes of the novel).
  5. Goldstein is painted as a radical and extremist in Part One of the novel, and is always a part of the Two Minutes Hate. However, once the reader sees his book in Part Two he no longer seems to be violent radical. Why does the Party see Goldstein’s book as dangerous? What treat does it pose?
  6. According to the manifesto, why do the three global powers engage in perpetual war?
  7. What does Goldstein lay out as the biggest threat to the oligarchy of INGCOS/Big Brother? How has the party worked to limit this threat? Cite evidence from the text to support your answer.
  8. What does the broken paperweight at the end of Part Two Symbolize?
  9. When Julia and Winston are caught, why does the voice behind the telescreen repeat everything that they say? What is the purpose of this?
  10. What is the irony in the location of the telescreen in Charrington’s rented room?
12th Grade Literature Fall 2018

1984 – Exemplification Essay

For this unit you will be writing a series of essays which relate directly to , or to the themes of, George Orwell’s novel 1984. In each essay you will be practicing a new mode of writing – for our first essay you will be writing an exemplification essay.

What is exemplification?

Exemplification essays use examples to illustrate or explain a point or abstract concept. Think of exemplification as a more sophisticated version of the informational essays you’ve written in the past.

What is effective exemplification?

The most effective presentations, discussion and speakers use plenty of specific examples – they don’t provide vague generalizations or broad statement. The same is true to the most effectively written examples of exemplification: you need plenty of specific examples from reliable sources to illustrate the point you are making or topic you are discussing. You can use examples in exemplification for three purposes:

  • Explain and clarify – this makes your point clear and answers any questions the reader may have.
  • Add interest – this makes your point clear and keeps the audience engaged.
  • Persuade – this makes your point clear, while convincing your audience your point is reasonable and worth considering.

How many examples should I use?

You are required to use a minimum of five examples for this essay, but you can use more if you like. You have to have enough examples to support and explain your idea – however, you should not simply have long block quotations or paraphrases that make up the bulk of the writing – you are making a clear point, and illustrating that point with well chosen, relevant examples.

Make sure you use transitions between the examples you’ve chosen as well – otherwise your paper can seem choppy if it is not obvious to the reader what the connection between you examples is.

What type of examples can I use?

You should use relevant, reliable examples. Remember, this means sources from scholarly, peer reviewed sources; government documents or surveys (.gov); studies or reports from educational institutions (.edu); reports and data from non-profit, unbias organizations (.org); interviews and unbias articles from reliable news organizations.

Remember, you MUST LOOK CRITICALLY at .org and news sources – many are unbias and should not be referenced for this paper.

How should I order my examples?

Be sure to choose an organizational strategy that works best  – either presenting your examples to help illustrate your point in chronological order, order of importance or order of complexity. Which strategy you choose will depend on which examples you’ve chosen.

 

Now that you’ve reviewed what exemplification is, you can begin brainstorming and finding examples to illustrate your point to the question:

How important is language to society?

In responding to this prompt, you must use 1984 as one of your sources, as well as one current event from a reliable source. The paper must be formatted in MLA, with a minimum of 5 citations total.

Click here to access the Exemplification Rubric for grading

Click here to access a sample exemplification article.

12th Grade Literature Fall 2018

Senior Skills: Using Language for Social Commentary

As we’ve read the Middle English version of The Canterbury Tales this week, we’ve discussed how Chaucer used the tales to critique society. The stories of “The Prioress” and “The Pardoner” served as social commentary on the corruption in the church, while “The Reeve” and “The Miller” tales served as commentary on the lack of morality in society.

We discussed how the delivery method of social commentary is much different today than in Chaucer’s time – while only roughly 100 copies of his book were sold in his lifetime, today we can share critiques about society with thousands of people at once through social media.

In our Socratic Seminar you discussed whether social media was the most effective form to use for social commentary – and you had brilliant conversations about what we value in society today, and how the persona and authority of a speak impacts the reach of their commentary. You also focused on the fact that many people are addicted to attention on social media, whether positive or negative, by citing this Harvard study – and you discussed how this addiction can impact what commentary we decide to share.

I’ve been very impressed with your discussions and analysis the past two weeks – it is important to understand how literature and language are used to praise or critique society and culture, as this is usually the first step towards making changes in a society or culture. You’ve already identified a few examples of social commentary from the 21st century in our class discussion post – now I would like you to create your own piece of social commentary.

Please click here for the full assignment sheet and grading rubric.

Choose a current event that you believe is important or worthy of social commentary.  Using the traits of effective rhetoric, create a piece of commentary about your chosen event or cultural trait. You may type, perform, write or create their social commentary – either physically or digitally.

You will be assessed on whether the rhetoric and language used in their commentary is effective for your stated purpose and audience. See a few examples below if you need ideas.

 

A piece of art – social commentary on how we are addicted to our phone – specially focused on the trend surrounding the ‘Pokemon Go’ game.

A social media campaign – this hashtag movement started the now widespread conversation about sexual harassment in Hollywood.

A poster – this piece of graphic design is commenting on animal testing for beauty products.

Donald Glover’s music video for the song ”This is America” severed as a piece of social commentary on police brutality and racial profiling.

12th Grade Literature Fall 2018

Old English – The Dream of the Rood

So far in the course we’ve focused heavily on the depiction of the Anglo Saxon warrior culture and the comitatus – the relationship between a warrior and his lord is the focus of the poem “The Wanderer”, and a key part to understanding characters and motivations in “Beowulf”.

In our reading of the poem “The Dream of the Rood”, we will see a clearer example of how the early Anglo Saxon culture blended with the introduction of Christianity to the British Isles. Be sure to pay attention to how this text works to very different ideas – the violent, warrior culture of the Anglo-Saxon’s with the mild and forgiving culture of Christianity.

The poem comes to us from engravings on a large cross from the 8th century (700’s AD) – in fact, this version of the story is older than any of the manuscript versions that still survive. The story of “The Dream of the Rood” is engraved on the surface of the cross, and would have served the purpose of telling the story of Christ to those who could not read (because they were illiterate in general, or in Latin). The Ruthwell Cross was also created during the period of ‘The Cult of the Cross’, where the crucifixes roll as an important symbol is Christian religion was born. During this period the role and worship of the cross as a physical manifestation of Christ was common, with stories of crucifixes coming to life to protect the churches they houses in from invaders being common.

The cross was destroyed during the early 17th century (1600’s AD) during a period when Protestants rejected the praise of icon/iconography in the church. It was reassembled in the 19th century.

For more background on “The Dream of the Rood” and the Ruthwell Cross on which the oldest remaining copy of the poem exists, please watch the videos below (note: the audio on the background video about the Ruthwell Cross is very poor – apologies).

 

Click here to access a copy of the poem, if you have lost your own copy from class.

The poem of “The Dream of the Rood” also give us the chance to examine the narrative technique of ‘framing’.

The poem itself is the recounting of a dream by a monk – he opens up the poem by describing going to sleep and being awoken by a brilliant ‘tree of glory’, and from there the tree itself tells us the story of his journey to become the cross that Christ was crucified on, before the narrative returns to the monk finishing up his retelling.

The frame narrative is used often to highlight the mystical, fantastic or magical nature of the ‘inner story’. By first presenting the reader/listener with a ‘normal’ set of characters and actions, it make the interior story seemed even more removed and distant, thus heightening how fantastical the actions of the story are view.

In “The Princess Bride”, a grandfather tells his sick grandson the tale of Princess Buttercup and the Pirate Wesley. The frequent interruptions by his grandson into the story remind the viewer of the framing device, and heighten the absurdity of the story.

Forrest Gump is actually sitting on a park bench, telling each new stranger the story of his life. By cutting back to the framing device bench and finding a seemingly new person/listener each time, the also unbelievable and fantastic events of his life are broken up. This means the accepting reactions of the individuals on the bench make it easier for the viewer to accept the reality that Gump is presenting.

cruc62

In “The Dream of the Rood”, the visitation of the ‘tree of glory’ that Christ was crucified on heightens the mystical, supernatural power of God in the poem. The fact that it is a Monk, a man of God, that see the cross in a dream reinforces this idea. The supernatural elements of the tale would also appeal to the recently converted Anglo Saxons.

12th Grade Literature Fall 2018