Diagramming Sentences: Verbals

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram verbals – gerunds, participial and infinitives.

Gerunds end with -ing and act as nouns.

Participials end in -ing, -d, -t, or -n, and act as adjectives.

Infinitives are to+verb, and they act as adjectives, nouns or adverbs.

 

Gerunds are function as subjects, direct object, indirect objects, objects of prepositions and more. When you diagram a gerund, you place them on ‘steps’. Put the -ing of the verb on the lower step and the rest of the verb on the upper step. You then attach your steps to the sentence with a pedestal in whichever part of speech the gerund is functioning as.

In the sentence ‘Running is fun’, running is a gerund. It is formed from the verb ‘run’ and ends in -ing, and functions as a noun in the subject of the sentence.

Gerunds can also have compliments (direct/indirect obj) or modifiers (adj, adv). These are called gerund phrases.

The sentence ‘Running marathons is fun’ is a gerund phrase. It’s made up of the gerund ‘running’ and the direct object ‘marathons’.

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. My sister and I enjoy laughing.
  2. Wow! Riding my bike is really fun.
  3. Jumping rope for twenty minutes is good for your heart.
  4. My favorite game is throwing a frisbee to my dog.
  5. I dream of diving to the bottom of the ocean.

 

Next, you should practice diagramming sentences with infinitives.

Infinitives act as a noun, adjective or adverb and is made up of two words: to+verb.

For example, in the sentence Kittens want to play, the infinitive ‘to play’ acts as a noun (or direct object) of the verb ‘want’.

infinative1

There are also ‘bare infinitives’  – these are infinitives that do not have the ‘to’ in front of the verb. They normally occur with verbs like feel, hear, help, let, make, see and watch.

Additionally, there are also infinitive phrases, where you have the infinitive and the words that modify and/or compliment it.

infinative2

To diagram infinitives, you’ll need to follow these rules:

infinative3

 

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. I love to go to the movie with my friends.
  2. The best thing for me to do is to try to control my urge to shop.
  3. If I plan to save my money for the trip, I definitely need to resist the temptation to shop online.
  4. I can hardly wait for Thanksgiving Break to get here.
  5. I cannot wait to see The Last Jedi on opening night.

 

Next, participles are words that are formed from verbs but act as adjective. They end in -ing, -d, -t or -n.

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. Can you help me fix the leaning column of blocks?
  2. Have you ever read The Giving Tree?
  3. The broken glass cut my foot.
  4. Ben, exhausted, took a nap on the couch after school.
  5. The torn paper is my homework from yesterday.
10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature AP Language and Composition Spring 2017 Spring 2018 Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentences: Relative Pronouns (Adjective Clauses)

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram relative pronouns.

Relative Pronouns are words that introduce adjective clauses : who, whom, whose, that, which.

Relative Adverbs can also introduce adjective clauses: where, why, when…

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that is used as an adjective. That means the whole clause modifies a noun or pronoun.

This is the house that Jack built.

That Jack built is a whole clause modifying the noun house That Jack built is an adjective clause.

Relative pronouns or relative adverbs link adjective clauses with the word in the independent clause that the adjective modified. The relative pronouns may act as a subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or a modifier within the adjective clause.

 

 

 

Now practice with the following ten sentences:

 

10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018 Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentences – Coordinating Conjunctions

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram sentences with conjunctions.

We structure each compound element different in our sentence diagrams. Here are examples of how to diagram compound subjects, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and objects of the preposition.

The following sentences will only contain compound words that you will need to diagram.

  1. Mr. Travers teaches at the school and plays outside at recces.
  2. Matt and Dina learn from Mr. Tavers.
  3. Lori’s blue and green dress has been drying on the clothesline in the yard.
  4. I looked for the jacket in the house and the car.
  5. Scott jogged quickly and quietly onto the soccer field.

Phrases are groups of words that function as a single part of speech. We studied prepositional phrases last week, and now you will learn to diagram sentences with prepositional phrases and conjunctions.

The following sentences will contain compound phrases you will need to diagram:

  1. The students were running in the halls and were sent to the principals office.
  2. My sister drove around the block and up the hill.
  3. The crazy little dog ran out the door and toward the stranger.
  4. Lori and Lisa were laughing and howling at the funny movie.
  5. Jason looked in the garage and around the house.

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. We can make sentences compound by putting two or more independent clauses together with coordinating conjunctions.

The following sentences will have two independent clauses connected by a conjunction:

  1. The little kitty in the basket meowed, and the small girl smiled.
  2. He drove across town, but she walked.
  3. Have you tried, or did you just ask for help?
  4. The man in the backyard cried, for he  fell from the tall ladder.
  5. Should you have been running towards the dog, or should you have been running away from it?
10th Grade Literature Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentences – Coordinating Conjunctions

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram sentences with conjunctions.

We structure each compound element different in our sentence diagrams. Here are examples of how to diagram compound subjects, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and objects of the preposition.

The following sentences will only contain compound words that you will need to diagram.

  1. Mr. Travers teaches at the school and plays outside at recces.
  2. Matt and Dina learn from Mr. Tavers.
  3. Lori’s blue and green dress has been drying on the clothesline in the yard.
  4. I looked for the jacket in the house and the car.
  5. Scott jogged quickly and quietly onto the soccer field.

Phrases are groups of words that function as a single part of speech. We studied prepositional phrases last week, and now you will learn to diagram sentences with prepositional phrases and conjunctions.

The following sentences will contain compound phrases you will need to diagram:

  1. The students were running in the halls and were sent to the principals office.
  2. My sister drove around the block and up the hill.
  3. The crazy little dog ran out the door and toward the stranger.
  4. Lori and Lisa were laughing and howling at the funny movie.
  5. Jason looked in the garage and around the house.

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. We can make sentences compound by putting two or more independent clauses together with coordinating conjunctions.

The following sentences will have two independent clauses connected by a conjunction:

  1. The little kitty in the basket meowed, and the small girl smiled.
  2. He drove across town, but she walked.
  3. Have you tried, or did you just ask for help?
  4. The man in the backyard cried, for he  fell from the tall ladder.
  5. Should you have been running towards the dog, or should you have been running away from it?
11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentence: Compound Direct and Indirect Objects

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram indirect objects and direct object compounds.

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. I smelled the delicious, buttery pecan pie and cookies.
  2. WHOA! Hurricane Maria violently landed in Puerto Rico and destroyed the infrastructure.
  3. The shopper gave Cythnia the payment, and she gave them the change.
  4. I reluctantly gave the teacher the note.
  5. My brother and I walked into the haunted woods and picked Mother flowers.
11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentence: Prepositional Phrases

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram adjectives and adverbs. Remember, you must pay attention to whether the adjective or adverb describes the verb or subject or direct object of a sentence, or if the adverb is modifying an adjective to determine where you should place it in your diagram.

A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and end with a pronoun. The whole phrases functions as either an adjective or adverb.

But what is a preposition? The technical definition is that a preposition is a word that shows the relationship between nouns or pronouns and other elements in the rest of the sentence. The easy definition is that a preposition is anything a worm can do to an apple:

 

Remember, when a prepositional phrase acts as an adjective, it modifies nouns and pronouns:

 

When prepositional phrases act as adverbs the modify verbs, adverbs or adjectives:

Remember, when a prepositional phrase acts as an adjective it can modify any noun or pronoun – not just those in the subject. Sometimes they modify the object of another prepositional phrase:

Practice diagramming prepositional phrases with the sentences below:

  1. The beautiful flowers in the garden are growing strong.
  2. That dog across the street has been barking again.
  3. Has Lucy been reading all night?
  4. The plane flew above the puffy, white clouds.
  5. The hairy dog sat in the corner of the room.
  6. The cookie dough is in the back of the fridge.
  7. The rusty shovel with the blue handle sat in my garage.
  8. These three adorable puppies in the basket on the floor have been whimpering since this morning.
  9. Every candle in the little church on Main Street burned brightly throughout the night.
  10. In May, the vigorous plants in Cathy’s vegetable garden grow very quickly.
10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018 Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentence: Indirect Objects

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram indirect objects.

Indirect objects are nouns of pronouns that recieve the direct object. This means that you have only have an indirect object in a sentence if you have a direct object.

 The baby kicked me the ball. 

In this sentence the ball is receiving the action of the verb ‘kicked’, making it the direct object. The pronoun me is recieving the direct object the ball, making it the indirect object.

Diagramming indirect objects requires you to remember that they are not only receiving the direct object, but are also the understood object of a preposition. Sound confusing? Its not, I promise!

Look a the sentence  The baby kicked me the ball. 

Another way to phrase this sentence is The baby kicked the ball to me.

When you diagram indirect object, do so as it they were the object of a preposition, and put an (x) where the understood preposition would go.

Try practicing with the following sentences:

  1. Could you bake me a cake?
  2. Natalie bought her elderly grandmother flowers.
  3. OH NO! Amazon sent me the wrong book!
  4. Patrick and Bob gave Rupert pygmies goat.
  5. The flight attendant handed Alex a puke-bag.

 

10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018 Spring 2018