1984 Part Two

In Part Two of the novel, we’ve analyzed the growing relationship of Winston and Julia, we’ve seen more of the power and reach of Big Brother, and we’ve seen Winston begin to commit more and more crimes against the party. As we review Part Two, remember to consider the main themes we’ve been analyzing:

  • The Power of Language
  • Privacy and Technology
  • The Control of Information
  • The Importance of History
  • Individual Freedoms
  • Relationships and Human Connections

As you analyze these themes in your groups, you will pick a minimum of three scenes in Part Two that you believe are clear examples of where you theme is playing out in Orwell’s work. You will prepare with your group members to debate others that your interpretation of these scenes is the accurate and correct on (Note: there is no one ‘correct’ interpretation for many of these scenes – you will be assessed on your rhetorical skills in this debate).

Please click here to access the checklist for your group debates.

You also worked together to brainstorm a list of the most important scenes, events, and characters in Part Two. Below you will find a series of questions generated around those topics you selected – these questions will be incorporated into your test over Part Two, so please be sure to review them!

 

  1. Early in Part Two Julia gives Winston a note reading “I love you”. How does this act illustrate her nature and personality? What other actions does she take in Part Two that clearly illustrate her character?
  2. What is the symbolism behind Winston and Julia’s first meeting place in the glen – “the golden country”?
  3. At the end of chapter two, Julia and Winston listen to the song of a thrush that lands in the glen. Later, in chapter ten, Winston remembers the song and asks Julia:

       “Do you remember,” he said, “the thrust that sang to us, that first day at the edge of the wood?”

         “He wasn’t singing to us,” said Julia. “He was singing to please himself. Not even that. He was just                singing.”

What do Winston and Julia’s vastly different interpretations of this same event reveal to us about             their  beliefs and their relationship?

  1. Music is very important to Part Two – in chapter 4 Winston and Julia hear a washerwoman singing outside the antique shop while she hangs up laundry. Later, in chapter 10, they hear her again. What is the significance and irony of the song the washerwoman is singing?
  2. “The bird sang, the proles sang, the Party did not sing … You were dead; theirs [the proles] was the future. But you could share in that future if you kept alive the mind as they kept alive the body and passed on the secret doctrine that two plus two makes four” (Orwell ).

In this quote we see Winston’s belief that, if he can still keep control of his own thoughts and                    beliefs he can achieve some form of ‘freedom’, like that the proles have. What would be Julia’s                  belief in this scenario?

  1. What causes Winston to suddenly remember what happened to his mother and sister? Why is this long-forgotten memory so important to Winston?
  2. How do we know that the Inner Party is allowed more freedom than the Outer Party members? Cite evidence from chapter 8 to support your answer.
  3. During the Hate Week demonstrations, the speaker suddenly switches from describing the enemy as Eurasia to Eastasia – explain the effect does this has on the party members at the demonstration, and on Winston.
  4. How does Big Brother suddenly shifting the enemy of the state demonstrate their power? (hint – your answer should discuss one of the themes of the novel).
  5. Goldstein is painted as a radical and extremist in Part One of the novel, and is always a part of the Two Minutes Hate. However, once the reader sees his book in Part Two he no longer seems to be violent radical. Why does the Party see Goldstein’s book as dangerous? What treat does it pose?
  6. According to the manifesto, why do the three global powers engage in perpetual war?
  7. What does Goldstein lay out as the biggest threat to the oligarchy of INGCOS/Big Brother? How has the party worked to limit this threat? Cite evidence from the text to support your answer.
  8. What does the broken paperweight at the end of Part Two Symbolize?
  9. When Julia and Winston are caught, why does the voice behind the telescreen repeat everything that they say? What is the purpose of this?
  10. What is the irony in the location of the telescreen in Charrington’s rented room?
12th Grade Literature Fall 2018

Senior Skills – How To Take Effective Notes

Throughout this first week of class we have covered a lot of content – your summer reading novel, the early history of English in the Anglo Saxon period and the differences between modern and Old English, Anglo Saxon poems “The Wanderer”, Beowulf, and the story of “The Dream of the Rood”. With your first test coming up, you need to ask yourself – am I taking enough notes? Am I taking ‘good’ notes?

As seniors you will probably realize that reading over assignments or texts once will not be enough – likewise, jotting things down in class and reading over them once will also probably not be sufficient to get the grade you desire. Below you will find a few helpful tips for note-taking that will (hopefully) help you out this semester.

1.Write things down in class, but know that these are not ‘notes’. Good notetakers re-write their messy notes.

You’re probably thinking “Wait, what?”, but yes – your messy, jotted down notes from class are not actually good ‘study notes’. Rewriting these notes for legibility does two things – one, it gives you a better copy to study from in the future and two, is a form of studying and reinforcing the information as you have to read the text (visual/cognitive) and rewrite the text (knesthetic/cognitive). See the student examples of messy class notes, and rewritten notes below.

 

 

 

 

 

2. Find a method of notetaking that works for you – yes, there are different ways to take notes!

Simply writing everything your teacher says in a long list is not effective note-taking. You need to find a way of organizing your notes that works for you, whether its a formal style like Cornell Notes or the Outline Method (this works great for textbook note-taking), or even the Doodle Method (yes, drawing pictures helps!). Maybe you have a system of using highlighted sections, color coding, or diagrams. Whatever it is, find the method that works for you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Don’t try to write everything down in class.

As seniors you hopefully know by now that trying to copy everything down word for word from a powerpoint, or that your teacher says, is a fruitless endeavor. You need to focus on getting just the key facts down, and doing so in your own voice. Re-reading my technical, dry powerpoint text later isn’t as effective as reading your own voice and natural word choice. Additionally, when you rewrite your notes (see #1 above) you can also go back and add in extra detail that you didn’t have a chance to get in class. Moreover, you will have the benefit of having the entire class to ruminate on, and all the additional connections you made to integrate and add to your notes later.

 

4. You can also RECORD your notes!

Are you an auditory learner? You may want to consider downloading a free sound recording app on your phone (voice memo for ISO is terrible you guys…) and recording yourself reading these notes. I am a strong auditory learner – because of this I use up most of my data on audiobooks and podcasts – and I remember the things I hear. This also means that for big projects, or when I attend a conference and have ideas I’d like to work on or get back to later, I record myself discussing these ideas outloud. Later, I can play them back to jog my memory, or to transcribe in any written or typed notes I take. Or, you can read your written notes aloud and listen to that sound file when its time to study. There are all kinds of new apps coming out for auditory note-takers, but if you don’t want to pay for them, just get a free sound recording app and try it out.

 

5. You might use a variety of note-taking styles.

I listen to auditory notes and podcasts and audiobooks. I jot quick notes on sheets of paper or handouts or napkins or whatever I have around. I rewrite my notes to look ‘neat’ and usable long into the future. I highlight, underline, use different colored highlights. I use everything I need to have effective notes that help me remember the content so I can put it to use and learn it – and so I can refer back to it whenever I need a refresher. Know that you may use a combination of lots of different styles until you find what works for you! Below you’ll see an example of notes I took FIVE YEARS AGO that I STILL USE. In them I employed a variety of styles of notetaking… how many styles will work for you?

 

 

12th Grade Literature Fall 2018

Senior Skills – A New Way of Reading

As you may have already realized, senior literature will be a little different than your previous courses. While the larger focus on language use instead of literary analysis is an obvious difference, you may have also noticed that the readings for this class reflect the fact that it is your fourth level English course. Gone are the days of ‘reading over’ your assignments, ‘skimming’ the required text or just reading over it once and being ‘good’.

As your text become more layered and complex, your reading style needs to change to reflect this. Often times you may need to do one, or all, of the following:

  1. Reread the passage multiple times.
  2. Take notes over the passage while reading it to help you understand.
  3. Look up additional helpful information online if you get stuck.
  4. Study and talk to classmates about the readings before coming to class.
  5. Reading any footnotes or supplementary information included in the text.

These are skills that you will need in many different situations – most definitely if you plan on attending a four year college, but also in technical school and training or certification programs, on-site job training and the military. These skills are also not unique to ‘English’ or ‘Literature’ – in fact, I used them most often in my science courses in college.

Steps one through four above should be familiar to you, but footnotes may be new.

While reading a book or article, have you ever noticed little numbers placed at the ends of some sentences?

These numbers usually appear as superscripts and correspond with numbers placed at the bottom of the page, next to which appears further information that is both necessary and supplementary. Sometimes this information will come in the form of citations, but sometimes it will simply present additional notes about the topic at hand.

These citations and explanations are called footnotes (because they appear in the footer of the page).

Long explanatory notes can be difficult for readers to trudge through when they occur in the middle of a paper. Providing this information is necessary, but doing so in the main text can disrupt the flow of the writing. Imagine if every time an author wanted to provide a citation, the entire citation had to be written out at the end of the sentence, like this (Anthony Grafton, The Footnote: A Curious History [Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999] 221). Books would become much longer and reading much more tedious. That’s why footnotes are so useful: they allow authors to provide the required information without disrupting the flow of ideas.

Footnotes can include anything from a citation to parenthetical information, outside sources, copyright permissions, background information, and anything in between, though certain style guides restrict when footnotes can be used.

Inc, S. (n.d.). What Are Footnotes and How Do You Use Them? Retrieved from https://www.scribendi.com/advice/what_are_footnotes.en.html

Footnotes can actually save you that extra step of looking up outside information, depending on how detailed or well written they are. But why should you care about the footnotes? The video below looks at the importance of footnotes from a historical perspective, while the article after that examines the importance of footnotes from a literary perspective. You will be encountering both types in the course, so please review both of these resources.

Click here for Jeff Sommer’s article “Consider the Footnote: Why Don’t More Author’s Use This Powerful Tool?”.

Ultimately, footnotes are there to help you and enrich your reading and understanding of a text, its historical context, the related scholarship and research surrounding it, or to add an additional narrative layer to a work of fiction. Know that it may take some time to get used to reading with footnotes – rereading a text at least twice, first to read the text along and second to read the text and incorporate your reading of the footnotes – can be an effective way to adapt to this new reading style.

 

12th Grade Literature Fall 2018