Revolutionary Women: Phillis Wheatley

Phillis Wheatley

 

Throughout our study of the literature of the American Revolution we have been primarily reading the texts of the founding fathers and other men of the period. However, women played an important role in the founding of our country and contributed greatly to its literature and political texts. One woman that made significant contributions to the arts was Phillis Wheatley.

 

Brought from Africa on the slave trade, Phillis Wheatley was given a formal education by her masters, and went on to write some of the most beautiful poetry of early America. Hidden in her poems were a celebration of her faith and a criticism of the institution of slavery in America.

In class today we began analyzing her poem ‘On Being Brought from Africa to America’. Please watch the video below of this analysis if you need to review!

Click here to access the poem.

 

We will be exploring the following questions about Wheatley’s poem in class – remember, our ‘how’ and ‘why‘ questions are the important ones to consider!

  • What is her overall tone in the poem?
  • How does she establish that tone?
  • What symbols and/or metaphors did she use throughout the poem?
  • How did she use symbols and/or metaphors effectively to give her poem multiple meanings or ‘layers’?
  • How would you describe the theme of the poem?

This is the fourth poem we have analyzed and annotated together or in small group – you will have to work with a poem on your own for this unit test. Please make sure you are practicing and becoming comfortable with close reading and analysis!

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

The Declaration of Independence

We are examining our founding document – an amazing piece of text that brought us to where we are today, and inspired other nations to declare those own free and independent states.

The original Declaration of Independence, ink on parchment. It has been damaged by light and improper storage, and the text has almost faded completely over the past 241 years.

A facsimile copy of The Declaration of Independence, struck in the 19th century. Copies, posters and prints of the document are made from this copy, not the original.

 

Click here to view the real Declaration of Independence at the National Archive.

As we read, analyze and discuss this document please remember that we are looking at not only its importance historically but also its use of effective syntax, and its rhetorical appeals.

Please see the videos below over the history of the document and a performance of the Declaration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today we also learned how to take DoodleNotes, using The Declaration as an example. Please click here to access the notes.

As we analyze the text, remember to look for the appeals to rhetoric and be able to explain how the syntax of the document make its more effective.

The text of the Declaration can be divided into four sections–the introduction, the preamble, the list of grievances, and the conclusion.  Please see the resources below to help you as we analyze this document in small groups, including the declaration itself, vocabulary from the document that may give you trouble, and your instructions for analysis with your group. 

Please see the breakdown you complete of the DOI as a class in the images below – you can click on them to open the full size image:

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

Structuring a Successful Argument

Imagine you are having an argument with your siblings – who should get the car Friday night? You each want to convince your parents that you are the most deserving child – but how? If you just yell at your sibling the whole time, you won’t look very mature or credible. You’ve helped around the house all week and you have good grades, shouldn’t you bring that up? Plus, its your friend’s birthday party and their dad is going to be relocated to a different base soon – you won’t be together for their next birthday. How do you present all of this information so that you win the argument and get the car?

Know how to structure argument is useful for many reasons – for real life arguments and debates over issues big and small, in writing your own arguments and in reading and analyzing the arguments of others.

The first thing you want to consider is what is your point – what is your claim? This will be the stance or position you take on the given topic or situation.

Next, what evidence do you have to support your claim? What do you have to ‘back up’ what you’re saying?

Also, is that evidence reliable, unbiased, and balanced (ethos/pathos/logos)? If its not trustworthy, why should we listen to it? If you don’t use all three rhetorical appeals, how can we know/trust/feel for you?

Finally, do you acknowledge your opponent? Remember, you are having an argument – if you don’t talk about your opponent’s point, you’re not really arguing, you’re just informing me on your own ideas and position.

Let’s review the elements of an argument and how to organize your argument-

 

Remember, your arguments will be assessed using the rubric – please click here to view it and please be sure to review the rubric before submitting your final essays!

Your 1st essay topic will use the resources from Patrick Henry and Joseph Galloway’s speech – your prompt is “Whose side would you support – the Loyalist or the Colonist, Joseph Galloway or Patrick Henry – in the Revolution? 

 

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

“Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death” by Patrick Henry and Joseph Galloway’s “Address to the Continental Congress”

The faces that these guys are pulling are PRICELESS.

The faces that these guys are pulling on Henry are PRICELESS.

As we read two of the most important and powerful texts in the Revolutionary Period – Patrick Henry’s “Speech to the Virginia Convention” and Joseph Galloway’s “Address to the Contintential Congress” you will be practicing analyzing rhetoric through the SOAPSTone PLUS method.  As we read through the texts together in class and discuss the use of rhetorical questions and extended metaphor, but sure to add our discussion to your analysis worksheet. You will also need these notes for the argumentative essay later this week.

Be sure to review the videos below from class today on Patrick Henry’s background, and the performance of his speech, if you were unable to get all of the notes:

Additionally, click here to access Henry’s speech if you have misplaced your copy, and click here to access the in-depth analysis packet you will be creating with your groups.

For my ESOL students, click here for a copy of the speech with explanations in the margins. 

Please see the video below for the notes over Galloway

And click here to access his speech if you misplaced you copy.

Finally, we analyzed and compared Henry and Galloway’s roles as Patriots and Loyalist in class, as well as completing a SOAPSTone over them – see the image below for our comparison notes.

 

Finally, you each summarized the main idea of each of the paragraphs in Galloway’s speech – see the images below for your summaries.

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

Revolutionary Literature

As we transition from literature of the Puritan period to literature of the American Revolution, it is important for you to understand that history and its accompanying literature transition SLOWLY – the colonist did not simply wake up one day and realize ‘Hey, we’re in a new literary time period! Let’s change our writing style and beliefs overnight!’. We began to see the slow shift from theocratic colonies obsessed with religion to a more secular, democratic society. Below you will find our notes from class outlining what exactly happened to transition the ideas of the Puritan period to the ideas of the Revolutionary period. Additionally, you will also find a complete list of ideas, concepts, beliefs and characteristics of the Revolutionary period that you may refer to throughout this unit.

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Common Beliefs

  1. Faith in natural goodness – a human is born without taint or sin
  2. Perfectibility of a human being – it is possible to improve situations of birth, economy, society, and religion
  3. The power of reason – e
  4. The attitude of helping everyone
  5. Outdated social institutions cause unsociable behavior – religious, social, economic, and political institutions, which have not modernized, force individuals into unacceptable behavior (in response to the Great Awakening and the Salem Witch trials)

Functions of the Writers of this Period

  1. A searching inquiry in all aspects of the world around
  2. Interest in the classics as well as in the Bible
  3. Interest in nature – the “absentee landlord” phenomenon
  4. Interest in science and scientific experiments
  5. Optimism – experiments in utopian communities
  6. Sense of a person’s duty to succeed
  7. Constant search of the self – emphasis on individualism in: a. personal religion. b. study of the Bible for personal interpretation

 

(*note: the end of the above video covers Revolutionary literature)

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

Sinners In The Hands of An Angry God – Johnathan Edwards

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As we move into ‘The Great Awakening’ in our study of American Literature, we will be analyzing the rhetorical power of Edward’s famous sermon, “Sinners In The Hands Of An Angry God”. Edward’s use of startling imagery and terrifying depictions of the wrath of God are shocking even for today’s modern audience, but would have been absolutely terrifying to the members of his congregation during his own time period.

Below you will find a brief video with background information on Edwards that YOU SHOULD DEFINITELY WATCH FIRST, follow by a PDF of the Sermon and the audio to the sermon. Download the PDF and follow along as you listen to the Youtube video of the sermon… make notes of the rhetoric Edward’s uses. You can use the SOAPSTone Plus method we learned in class for this:

As we begin to examine an author’s use of rhetoric to achieve a specific purpose remember that this will be a huge part of AP Language next semester! That means you need to practice the method of SOAPSTone Plus. Begin practicing the SOAPSTone Plus analysis method – you will use it from now on!

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After you have become comfortable with just finding the use of these rhetorical devices, you can begin analyzing texts in the Arch Method. This will streamline you note taking over your analysis, and can be a life saver during the timed Rhetorical Analysis essay on the AP Language and Composition Exam. Below you can find a sample of the Arch Method process, as well as an example of how to conduct the Arch Method Analysis with Mary Rowlandson’s “A Narrative of the Captivity”.

 Arch Method Arch Method Rowlandson

*Click on the images for an enlarged view

Click here for “Sinners In the Hands of An Angry God.”

And finally, click here for the full audio of his sermon. 

 

Can’t wait to discuss this with you tomorrow! 🙂

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11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019

Diagramming Sentences: Relative Pronouns (Adjective Clauses)

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. Knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram relative pronouns.

Relative Pronouns are words that introduce adjective clauses : who, whom, whose, that, which.

Relative Adverbs can also introduce adjective clauses: where, why, when…

An adjective clause is a dependent clause that is used as an adjective. That means the whole clause modifies a noun or pronoun.

This is the house that Jack built.

That Jack built is a whole clause modifying the noun house That Jack built is an adjective clause.

Relative pronouns or relative adverbs link adjective clauses with the word in the independent clause that the adjective modified. The relative pronouns may act as a subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or a modifier within the adjective clause.

 

 

 

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. I love the person who vaccumed the living room!
  2. Stacy walked slowing into the house that was haunted.
  3. The woman with whom I spoke sold real estate.
  4.  Are coaches who are also teachers paid double?
  5. The Christmas presents, which were wrapped in gold and green paper, looked perfect under the tree.
  6. The couples, who looked so happy and in love, danced all night.
  7. I gave her the carton of milk, which had been sitting in the fridge.

 

11th Grade American Literature Fall 2019