Diagramming Sentences: Verbals

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram verbals – gerunds, participial and infinitives.

Gerunds end with -ing and act as nouns.

Participials end in -ing, -d, -t, or -n, and act as adjectives.

Infinitives are to+verb, and they act as adjectives, nouns or adverbs.

 

Gerunds are function as subjects, direct object, indirect objects, objects of prepositions and more. When you diagram a gerund, you place them on ‘steps’. Put the -ing of the verb on the lower step and the rest of the verb on the upper step. You then attach your steps to the sentence with a pedestal in whichever part of speech the gerund is functioning as.

In the sentence ‘Running is fun’, running is a gerund. It is formed from the verb ‘run’ and ends in -ing, and functions as a noun in the subject of the sentence.

Gerunds can also have compliments (direct/indirect obj) or modifiers (adj, adv). These are called gerund phrases.

The sentence ‘Running marathons is fun’ is a gerund phrase. It’s made up of the gerund ‘running’ and the direct object ‘marathons’.

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. My sister and I enjoy laughing.
  2. Wow! Riding my bike is really fun.
  3. Jumping rope for twenty minutes is good for your heart.
  4. My favorite game is throwing a frisbee to my dog.
  5. I dream of diving to the bottom of the ocean.

 

Next, you should practice diagramming sentences with infinitives.

Infinitives act as a noun, adjective or adverb and is made up of two words: to+verb.

For example, in the sentence Kittens want to play, the infinitive ‘to play’ acts as a noun (or direct object) of the verb ‘want’.

infinative1

There are also ‘bare infinitives’  – these are infinitives that do not have the ‘to’ in front of the verb. They normally occur with verbs like feel, hear, help, let, make, see and watch.

Additionally, there are also infinitive phrases, where you have the infinitive and the words that modify and/or compliment it.

infinative2

To diagram infinitives, you’ll need to follow these rules:

infinative3

 

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. I love to go to the movie with my friends.
  2. The best thing for me to do is to try to control my urge to shop.
  3. If I plan to save my money for the trip, I definitely need to resist the temptation to shop online.
  4. I can hardly wait for Thanksgiving Break to get here.
  5. I cannot wait to see The Last Jedi on opening night.

 

Next, participles are words that are formed from verbs but act as adjective. They end in -ing, -d, -t or -n.

Now practice with the following sentences:

  1. Can you help me fix the leaning column of blocks?
  2. Have you ever read The Giving Tree?
  3. The broken glass cut my foot.
  4. Ben, exhausted, took a nap on the couch after school.
  5. The torn paper is my homework from yesterday.
10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature AP Language and Composition Spring 2017 Spring 2018 Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentences: Relative Pronouns (Adjective Clauses)

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram relative pronouns.

Relative Pronouns are words that introduce adjective clauses : who, whom, whose, that, which.

Relative Adverbs can also introduce adjective clauses: where, why, when…

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that is used as an adjective. That means the whole clause modifies a noun or pronoun.

This is the house that Jack built.

That Jack built is a whole clause modifying the noun house That Jack built is an adjective clause.

Relative pronouns or relative adverbs link adjective clauses with the word in the independent clause that the adjective modified. The relative pronouns may act as a subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or a modifier within the adjective clause.

 

 

 

Now practice with the following ten sentences:

 

10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018 Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentences – Coordinating Conjunctions

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram sentences with conjunctions.

We structure each compound element different in our sentence diagrams. Here are examples of how to diagram compound subjects, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and objects of the preposition.

The following sentences will only contain compound words that you will need to diagram.

  1. Mr. Travers teaches at the school and plays outside at recces.
  2. Matt and Dina learn from Mr. Tavers.
  3. Lori’s blue and green dress has been drying on the clothesline in the yard.
  4. I looked for the jacket in the house and the car.
  5. Scott jogged quickly and quietly onto the soccer field.

Phrases are groups of words that function as a single part of speech. We studied prepositional phrases last week, and now you will learn to diagram sentences with prepositional phrases and conjunctions.

The following sentences will contain compound phrases you will need to diagram:

  1. The students were running in the halls and were sent to the principals office.
  2. My sister drove around the block and up the hill.
  3. The crazy little dog ran out the door and toward the stranger.
  4. Lori and Lisa were laughing and howling at the funny movie.
  5. Jason looked in the garage and around the house.

A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. We can make sentences compound by putting two or more independent clauses together with coordinating conjunctions.

The following sentences will have two independent clauses connected by a conjunction:

  1. The little kitty in the basket meowed, and the small girl smiled.
  2. He drove across town, but she walked.
  3. Have you tried, or did you just ask for help?
  4. The man in the backyard cried, for he  fell from the tall ladder.
  5. Should you have been running towards the dog, or should you have been running away from it?
10th Grade Literature Spring 2018

Creating Poetry to Reflect World Themes

In this assignment you will create two poems that reflect the themes or images you have observed in the literature of your world culture. These two poems must:

• Be a minimum of 14 lines long.
o If creating a blackout poem, the poem must be at least two pages.
• Reflect a clear theme.
• Use five poetic devices, three of which are common in the poetry of your culture.

To help you decide on the topic of theme of your own poems, review the information regarding the poems from you country that you’ve already read, and the information you’ve already researched. Then, decide which of these themes or devices you will be using in your own poem.

 

 

Remember, poetry uses figurative language (imagery, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) and sound devices (rhyme and rhyme scheme, alliteration, anaphora, repetition). You should use a mix of these in your own poem. Decided on the POV for your poem – 1st, 2nd or 3rd. Will your poem tell a story or share a scene or experience, or have a metaphorical discussion about a topic or theme? Remember, you don’t just have to write your poetry, you can create it with blackout poetry:

“Blackout poems can be created using the pages of old books or even articles cut from yesterday’s newspaper. Using the pages of an existing text, blackout poets isolate then piece together single words or short phrases from these texts to create lyrical masterpieces.

Step 1: Scan the page first before reading it completely. Keep an eye out for an anchor word as you scan. An anchor word is one word on the page that stands out to you because it is packed and loaded with meaning and significance.  Starting with an anchor word is important because it helps you to imagine possible themes and topics for your poem.

Step 2: Now read the page of text in its entirety. Use a pencil to lightly circle any words that connect to the anchor word and resonate with you. Resonant words might be expressive or evocative, but for whatever reason, these are the words on the page that stick with you. Avoid circling more than three words in a row.

Step 3: List all of the circled words on a separate piece of paper. List the words in the order that they appear on the page of text from top to bottom, left to right. The words you use for the final poem will remain in this order so it doesn’t confuse the reader.

Step 4: Select words, without changing their order on the list, and piece them together to create the lines of a poem. You can eliminate parts of words, especially any endings, if it helps to keep the meaning of the poem clear. Try different possibilities for your poem before selecting the lines for your final poem. If you are stuck during this step, return back to the original page of text. The right word you are searching for could be there waiting for you.

Step 5: Return to the page of text and circle only the words you selected for the final poem.  Remember to also erase the circles around any words you will not be using.

Step 6: Add an illustration or design to the page of text that connects to your poem. Be very careful not to draw over the circled words you selected for your final poem!”

Source: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/blog-posts/john-depasquale/blackout-poetry/

10th Grade Literature Spring 2018

The Shape of Stories

In the next two weeks  we will be reading and examining a series of short stories, and discussing the ‘shape’ of short stories – their plots.

 

Many of you are probably familiar with a simplified version of Freytag’s Pyramid :middle-school-plot-diagram (1)

plot-shape-conflict-2-638However, while this is an easy way to remember the typical form of plot progression in Western storytelling, it is not completely accurate. Not all, not most, stories follow this plot progress. Stories have their own ‘shape’ – and the more interesting the plot of the story, the more interesting the shape.

Listen to amazing short story writer Kurt Vonnegut explain the ‘shape of stories’ by clicking the link below.

Click here to listen to Kurt Vonnegut’s ‘The Shape of Stories’.

Vonnegut explains that stories are much more complex that the typical Freytag’s Pyramid.

BoxVYIlIcAAsg3Bkurt-vonnegut--the-shapes-of-stories_502918a226d9a_w1500

Think of movies you’ve watched – what type of ‘shape’ did the plot create? Think about tv shows – each episode has its own plot, and then all the episodes in a season create a larger plot as well.

2014-03-30-15.56.48-e1396238648548

As we read through the short stories in this unit I want you to consider the ‘shape’ of these stories. You will need to keep track of them – and decide which ‘shape’ make for the most interesting story.

Also remember that we’re looking at the shape of Western stories (stories from American or Europe) – stories from other cultures in Asian and the Middle East follow a much different plot structure. Stories in Asian culture are often told in a cyclical or spiral manner:

organic-architecture-spiralstoryspiralminnionspiral_plotspiral

 

 

If you’ve ever watched an Asian movie or tv show (Dragon Ball Z) and felt like so much information was being repeated, or that the story took a really long time to ‘get going’, it was probably because their storytelling structure is so different from ours.

Some modern storytellers and movie-makers like Christopher Nolan are trying to use new and interesting plot structures – if you’ve seen these movies and have been confused about what’s happen, that’s probably why!

inception-explained_50290a7919c5a_w1500 619f8731a1c552dc05fbc6fdf5b23dbd

 

10th Grade Literature Spring 2018

Conducting Research – Determining the Reliability of Sources

As we being our unit on World Literature, you will be deciding which culture you would like to research and explore in your groups. You will also need to brainstorm six questions about this culture or literature you would like to find the answers to.

Once you have decided which culture’s literature you’re focusing on, and have determine which set of questions you want to research the answers to, you will need to make sure you use only RELIABLE SOURCES!

Remember, reliable sources are those that can be trusted to provide unbiased, factual information. Reliable sources include .org, .gov or .edu websites, books, news organizations, educational journals or publications.

Unreliable sources cannot be trusted for accuracy or for an unbiased perspective. Unreliable sources include Wikipedia, Yahoo Answers, any .net or .com website, blogs, editorials from newspapers, or forums.

Click here to view the worksheet from class on reliable vs unreliable sources.

Remember, if you have a hard time determine if a source is reliable or not, you can always ask us to check it with you!

You will need to gather information from reliable sources to answer the questions you’ve selected from above, and be sure to paste the information in your GoogleDocs. You will need to use this information throughout the week to write an extended essay response, so please save your research!

10th Grade Literature Spring 2018

Diagramming Sentence: Prepositional Phrases

Before you can effectively write using the English language, or even analyze how others use writing effectively, you need to be familiar with the basic parts and components of the English language. I know grammar isn’t your favorite subject to study and learn (hey, it isn’t my favorite either), BUT knowing and being able to identify these smaller component of your own language will allow you to write more effectively and assess and improve your own writing as the year progresses.

This week we will be examining how to correctly diagram adjectives and adverbs. Remember, you must pay attention to whether the adjective or adverb describes the verb or subject or direct object of a sentence, or if the adverb is modifying an adjective to determine where you should place it in your diagram.

A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and end with a pronoun. The whole phrases functions as either an adjective or adverb.

But what is a preposition? The technical definition is that a preposition is a word that shows the relationship between nouns or pronouns and other elements in the rest of the sentence. The easy definition is that a preposition is anything a worm can do to an apple:

 

Remember, when a prepositional phrase acts as an adjective, it modifies nouns and pronouns:

 

When prepositional phrases act as adverbs the modify verbs, adverbs or adjectives:

Remember, when a prepositional phrase acts as an adjective it can modify any noun or pronoun – not just those in the subject. Sometimes they modify the object of another prepositional phrase:

Practice diagramming prepositional phrases with the sentences below:

  1. The beautiful flowers in the garden are growing strong.
  2. That dog across the street has been barking again.
  3. Has Lucy been reading all night?
  4. The plane flew above the puffy, white clouds.
  5. The hairy dog sat in the corner of the room.
  6. The cookie dough is in the back of the fridge.
  7. The rusty shovel with the blue handle sat in my garage.
  8. These three adorable puppies in the basket on the floor have been whimpering since this morning.
  9. Every candle in the little church on Main Street burned brightly throughout the night.
  10. In May, the vigorous plants in Cathy’s vegetable garden grow very quickly.
10th Grade Literature 11th Grade American Literature Spring 2018 Spring 2018